What is


Open Science is “doing science” so that other researchers can collaborate and contribute; where data, lab notes and other processes are made available, under licenses that allow the reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its methods.

“Open science is an approach to the scientific process based on collaboration, open and timely sharing of results, ways of disseminating knowledge based on networked digital technologies and transparent methods of validation and evaluation of research products. Open science increases the effectiveness of collaboration and the reproducibility of research results. It increases the collaborative potential with the possibility of accessing data and reusing them for new analyses, including interdisciplinary ones, and for scientific teaching, as well as the usability of scientific knowledge, in a transparent way, for the benefit of society.”

Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca, Piano Nazionale per la Scienza Aperta 2021-2027

According to the European Commission, Open Science is:

  • share methodologies, knowledge, processes and tools in an open and transparent way, from the early stages of the scientific discovery process
  • transparency in the experimental methodology, in the observation of phenomena and in the collection of data
  • reliability and public reusability of scientific data and research products
  • public accessibility and transparency of scientific communication processes
  • use and sharing of web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration

“Open science is defined as an inclusive construct that combines various movements and practices aiming to make multilingual scientific knowledge openly available, accessible and reusable for everyone, to increase scientific collaborations and sharing of information for the benefits of science and society, and to open the processes of scientific knowledge creation, evaluation and communication to societal actors beyond the traditional scientific community. It comprises all scientific disciplines and aspects of scholarly practices, including basic and applied sciences, natural and social sciences and the humanities, and it builds on the following key pillars: open scientific knowledge, open science infrastructures, science communication, open engagement of societal actors and open dialogue with other knowledge systems.”

UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science